Resources | LpR Article | Research News | CIE | Applications | Dec 12, 2018

How to Use the Technologies for Adaptive Lighting

The technologies to provide adaptive lighting are already in the marketplace and are accepted by some jurisdictions. Nonetheless, we have an inadequate understanding of how best to use these technologies, meaning that installations might not serve users well, and in the worst case, might lead to harm. Lighting researchers can generate the knowledge needed to support the best application of adaptive lighting technologies. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) understands the importance and urgency to deal with problems of adaptive, dynamic and intelligent lighting in all application fields. Hence, this topic is a highlight of CIE’s research strategy.

How to Use the Technologies for Adaptive Lighting

The technologies to provide adaptive lighting are already in the marketplace and are accepted by some jurisdictions. Nonetheless, we have an inadequate understanding of how best to use these technologies, meaning that installations might not serve users well, and in the worst case, might lead to harm. Lighting researchers can generate the knowledge needed to support the best application of adaptive lighting technologies. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) understands the importance and urgency to deal with problems of adaptive, dynamic and intelligent lighting in all application fields. Hence, this topic is a highlight of CIE’s research strategy.

The Role of Adaptive Lighting The role of adaptive lighting (sometimes called “smart lighting”) is to adapt in a holistic way the whole set of lighting parameters to the current needs of users depending on current conditions, changing in response to changing conditions that include the availability and quality of daylight, occupancy pattern of users, and user preferences. Dynamic lighting can change according to pre-set dynamic variations or in response to manual controls, but adaptive lighting detects current conditions and response accordingly. If automatic functions are incorporated, and even more, if these are based on advanced technologies like fuzzy-logic, genetic algorithms or neural networks, we can call such systems “intelligent”.

The adaptability of a lighting system can be classified into four levels:
• Level 1 - adaptation using time schedules based on statistics
• Level 2 - adaptation on demand using local sensors or individual
  local controls
• Level 3 - adaptation with links to intelligent systems such as Building
  Automation Systems (BAS) for buildings and Intelligent Transport
  Systems (ITS) on selected roadways
• Level 4 - adaptation combining the options of Levels 2 and 3, for example:
    ° scheduled changes in light source color or level to mimic daylight
       patterns, with or without local occupancy detection, task tuning,
       or daylight harvesting
    ° adaptation with links to ITS systems on all roadways with electrical
       and lighting management systems (ELMS) control
    ° luminance monitoring
    ° lighting-on-demand - lights that are activated by immediate need
       and otherwise are dimmed or switched off, e.g. with Connected
       Vehicle Technology or in response to local occupancy signals
    ° smart city and smart building applications

How to Use the Technologies for Adaptive Lighting

The technologies to provide adaptive lighting are already in the marketplace and are accepted by some jurisdictions. Nonetheless, we have an inadequate understanding of how best to use these technologies, meaning that installations might not serve users well, and in the worst case, might lead to harm. Lighting researchers can generate the knowledge needed to support the best application of adaptive lighting technologies. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) understands the importance and urgency to deal with problems of adaptive, dynamic and intelligent lighting in all application fields. Hence, this topic is a highlight of CIE’s research strategy.

Key research questions are:
• What is the impact of adaptive lighting on user behavior or reactions,
   such as occupants’ space perception or driver safety?
• How should the system adapt itself to the circumstances to provide optimal
   lighting? For example:
    ° Could the system detect individual needs for varying visual conditions?
    ° Could roadway lighting vary depending on traffic composition,
       traffic density, and weather conditions?
• What are the relations between lighting settings and user safety
   and comfort?
• Which types and levels of dynamics are acceptable in a
   lighting installation?
• Which types of input and feedback (e.g. road surface luminance
   monitoring, photocells, presence detection, algorithms for integrated
   multi-sensor input, automated fault detection) are necessary to
   ensure system usability?
• What are the energy and operational costs and benefits of
   adaptive lighting?
• Could adaptive exterior lighting have ecological benefits beyond
   energy savings?

The CIE has previously published two technical reports that fully (CIE 222:2017) or partly (CIE 205:2013) deal with problems of dynamic, adaptive and intelligent lighting in buildings.

CIE 222:2017 - Decision Scheme for Lighting Controls in Non- Residential Buildings

This report offers guidelines in order to balance lighting quality, user comfort and energy efficiency in lighting controls solutions for lighting in nonresidential buildings (i.e. for commercial, institutional and industrial buildings). It provides a decision scheme with a focus on the user requirements (visual comfort, performance, personal control) to determine the most applicable control solution, including the consequences for possible savings. In this, it assumes that there are no technological or financial hurdles. The decision scheme identifies 16 possible control strategies, for both daylight and electric lighting, and provides guidance for which strategy would be most effective in each of the 12 cases defined by space usage and occupancy.

CIE 205:2013 - Review of Lighting Quality Measures for Interior Lighting with LED Lighting Systems

This report provides information on the suitability of existing lighting quality measures when applied to (commercial) interior LED lighting systems. It identifies the gaps and weaknesses in existing quality measures, recommends new quality measures and includes suggestions for required research.

CIE Technical Committees Are Addressing Adaptive Lighting in Transport and Roadway Applications

TC 4-51 - Optimization of Road Lighting:

Objective of this TC is to develop guidance on optimization of road lighting to balance the benefits and costs where primary issues include accident risk and energy consumption.

C 4-47 - Application of LEDs in Transport Lighting and Signaling:

This TC aims to review the application and methods of measurement of LED Systems in transport lighting and signaling and to provide recommendations for the visual characteristics of LED signals and lighting as far as they affect the visual performance of the users of the transport system.

Summary & Conclusion

Current research on adaptive lighting was a focus of discussion during the CIE Topical Conference on Smart Lighting, held earlier this year in Chinese Taipei. The conference addressed key questions in this field and provided space for topical tutorials, a panel discussion on standards needed for smart lighting and a site demo presenting a practical application of smart lighting at a pier in Keelung City.

Although adaptive lighting installations are few in number today, the pace is increasing. The time for researchers to address the CIE Research Agenda questions is now, so that the future of adaptive and intelligent lighting rests on a solid foundation of research and standardization.

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