LED professional Review (LpR) - Articles

Resources | LpR Article | Engineering | LEDs | Reliability | Aug 06, 2018

Electrical Over Stress - How to Prevent an LED Failing Earlier than Expected

Electrical Over Stress - How to Prevent an LED Failing Earlier than Expected Article from LpR 66, page 70: While LEDS are, in general, very robust, failures still happen due to electrical over stress. Mauro Ceresa, EMEA Field Application Engineer Manager at Cree, will cover all aspects related to electrical over stress, or when an LED fails due to being subjected to a voltage beyond its specification limits. He will explain why the failure occurs and how to prevent this from happening. The article will explain the fundamental aspects of a good PCB layout design and how this is linked to the longevity of an LED. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Research | Life-Time | Simulation Tools | Jul 30, 2018

Lifetime- and Economic Efficiency Simulation of LED Luminaires in Dymola/Modelica

Lifetime- and Economic Efficiency Simulation of LED Luminaires in Dymola/Modelica Article from LpR 66 | page 40: The lifetime of an LED system is usually specified by the LM-80 report using the TM-21 method. Unfortunately, this value is solely valid for one specific application. Sebastian Hämmerle and Thomas Schmitt from the University of Applied Sciences in Vorarlberg developed a new open-source Modelica library for dynamic simulation of LEDs: The DynaLed library. The aim of the work was to evaluate the lifetime and the corresponding economic efficiency of LEDs in dynamic operation by means of the LM-80 report and according to the TM-21 calculation method. Furthermore, it should be possible to use the library for component dimensioning, e.g. the heatsink. The primary task was to develop simulation models which can be parametrized with manufacturer information, e.g. the datasheet, but still provide sufficient accuracy. As an application example an LED louvre luminaire (Article Code: 29001077) from LEDON Lamp GmbH was simulated utilizing the developed library. At the end, results from the lifetime- and the economic efficiency simulation were discussed. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Engineering | Lifetime | Drivers | Jul 23, 2018

Method and Circuit to Maintain Constant Light Output for LED Luminaires

Method and Circuit to Maintain Constant Light Output for LED Luminaires Article from LpR 66 | page 80: It is difficult to accurately predict the lifetime or the light output degradation of LED luminaires. A Constant Light Output (CLO) operation is implemented in some of the latest drivers. However, there are many factors that require a different algorithm in terms of time rate and forward current values that are usually not taken into account. Prof.Dr.Eng. Stelian Matei, from the Photometry and Electromagnetic Compatibility Laboratory at Electromagnetica SA, proposes and explains a new method is maintaining the luminous flux over the lifetime of the LED luminaire, considering the luminaire global light degradation. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Commentary | Safety | Light Sources | Jul 20, 2018

Blue Light Hazard - How Dangerous Is SSL Lighting?

Blue Light Hazard - How Dangerous Is SSL Lighting? Modern Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology has long since found its way into our normal working and living environments. In the early phases, consumers were most concerned with lifetime, pricing and light quality of the new LED-based light sources. Now they have become almost ubiquitous, a focus has been placed on safety. At the recent Light+Building exhibition topics such as photobiological safety and blue light hazard (BLH) were highly ranked among both visitors and exhibitors. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Light Generation | LEDs | Human Centric Lighting | Jul 02, 2018

A Near Infrared Enhanced LED Lighting Approach

A Near Infrared Enhanced LED Lighting Approach With the evolution of LED lighting, one topic has come more and more in the focus of the lighting industry: Human Centric Lighting (HCL). While HCL is not clearly defined, a common understanding is that this is light and lighting that supports health and the well-being of humans. Some new proposals are going beyond the approach of providing just visible light in adequate quality, but also to providing invisible radiation, UV and/or NIR that support health and well-being. Some research and the evolution of humans show clear evidence for positive effects of this kind of illumination. Scott Zimmerman, CEO at Silas, presents a new approach that adds NIR radiation to LED illumination. He explains the background of this idea, how it also improves the quality of visible light and discusses the health benefits. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Research | Light Generation | LEDs | Nanowire | Jun 27, 2018

Full-Color InGaN/AlGaN Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes for SSL and Displays

Full-Color InGaN/AlGaN Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes for SSL and Displays III-nitride based nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have received a staggering response as a future candidate for solid-state lighting and full-color displays due to their unique and exceptional features including drastically reduced polarization fields, dislocation densities as well as the associated quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) on account of their effective strain relaxation. Moab Rajan Philip and his supervisor Dr. Hieu P Nguyen in the Nano-Optoelectronic Materials and Devices Laboratory at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) present astonishing ideas to fabricate and control the color emission of III-nitride nanowire LEDs via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth techniques. The advantage of such LEDs and their characteristics is also discussed. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Automotive | Driver IC | Jun 01, 2018

Flicker-Free Control of Individual LEDs in Matrix Headlights

Flicker-Free Control of Individual LEDs in Matrix Headlights LEDs combine design flexibility with practical, robust circuitry, enabling automotive designers to produce striking headlight designs matched by exceptionally long life and performance. Keith Szolusha, Sr. Design Leader for LED driver products at Linear Technology, and now part of Analog Devices explains how automobile designers are increasingly incorporating LEDs in lighting because they can be arranged in distinctive eye-catching designs - helping distinguish new models from old, or high end from economy. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Technologies | Applications | May 02, 2018

Multi-Pixel LED Technology Opens New Horizons for Smart Lighting Applications

Multi-Pixel LED Technology Opens New Horizons for Smart Lighting Applications The evolution of Multi-Pixel LED technology has initiated a giant leap in the development of intelligent lighting systems which are most visible in the automotive industry. Now the first hybrid LED provides smart headlights with more than 1000 individually controllable pixels. Ralph Bertram, who is working on advanced LED device concepts, and Norbert Harendt, who is developing optics solutions for general lighting at Osram Opto Semiconductors, show that automotive lighting is just one of the potential areas in which intelligent selective pixel control can be applied. Options for the use in general lighting, such as information display for outdoor, indoor, retail or industrial applications, are very versatile. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Research | Sustainability | Environment | Apr 27, 2018

Repro-Light - Looking for a Sustainable and Modular Luminaire Architecture

Repro-Light - Looking for a Sustainable and Modular Luminaire Architecture The Repro-light project aims to re-conceptualize the European lighting industry towards more sustainability and competitiveness in terms of production and time to market. This will be achieved through the implementation of modular luminaire architecture and a smart production scheme, demonstrated by the development of a reconfigurable customized LED luminaire designed to improve the customers’ health. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Research | Optics | Engineering | Apr 13, 2018

Optimization of Freeform Optics Using T-Splines in LED Illumination Design

Optimization of Freeform Optics Using T-Splines in LED Illumination Design Freeform optics is the game changer in the illumination industry in terms of its ability to redirect the light into the target area. Non-Uniform Rational B-splines, commonly known as NURBS are widely used to represent freeform curves and surfaces. There are certain optical systems where local modification of the surface is necessary during the design or optimization phase. In such cases, NURBS cannot offer such transformations. But a new mathematical representation called T-splines make this feasible. Though its potentiality is well described, this has not been implemented in any optimization routine so far. Annie Shalom Isaac, Jiayi Long and Cornelius Neumann from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology demonstrate the advantage of the local refinement ability of T-splines by implementing it in the optimization routine and the results are evaluated. Results show that T-splines provide more uniform and homogenous light distribution as compared to NURBS at a faster convergence rate. This makes optical design or optimization using T-splines an intuitive approach for future freeform design tasks. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Environment | Mar 27, 2018

A World of LED Lights - The Cost of Waiting

A World of LED Lights - The Cost of Waiting Today, LEDs dominate the lighting domain. They are efficient and manufacturers understand how to implement them for different lighting applications. While energy efficiency is rather well understood, the impact of the adoption speed is rarely discussed is. Benoit Bataillou, guest author from Pi Lighting, will have a look at the environmental cost of LED production versus the significant energy savings that a full transition to LEDs would bring. In a fictive scenario, he assumes that a transition takes place in a heartbeat today and compares that with the usually supposed scenario of a full transition to LED lights in 2025. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Quality | Optics | Mar 13, 2018

Glare Reduction Made Easy

Glare Reduction Made Easy A pleasant lighting atmosphere due to low glare at the workstation is not only pleasant and performance-enhancing, but also legally required according to EU standard EN 12464-1. But what does “glaring” mean here? Dr. Claudius Noack, Technical Director at NORKA Leuchten, explains if luminaires with the same luminous flux are glaring to the same degree and if the same luminaires are glaring to the same degree at different workstations. He answers the questions of what a manufacturer does and if manufacturers are lying to themselves and therefore to their customers when providing information on the glare rating. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Technologies | Light Generation | Tunable White Light | Feb 28, 2018

A New Technology Is Changing the Tunable White Solutions

A New Technology Is Changing the Tunable White Solutions Tunable white LEDs are one key element of human centric lighting. Until today, different solutions are currently available but none of them is easy to apply or cost effective enough to speed up the diffusion of human centric lights in building projects. A new approach for tunable white solutions is able to provide flexible lighting for multiple occasions without sacrificing output or going over project budget. Phil Lee, Senior Lighting Engineer from Meteor Lighting will compare this new technology, called ColorFlip™, to conventional tunable white solutions, and talk about current tunable white issues. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Tech-Talks Bregenz | Quantum Dots | Feb 27, 2018

Tech-Talks BREGENZ - Ken T. Shimizu, Research & Development Director, Lumileds

Tech-Talks BREGENZ - Ken T. Shimizu, Research & Development Director, Lumileds QDs have been a hot topic in lighting for a while already, but up until now they haven’t been adopted on a large scale in lighting. The adoption began in display devices because some of the technical issues were of less concern in this application. With continuing development, QDs are now also becoming interesting for general lighting applications. Ken Shimizu, Director of Novel Technologies and Devices, Research and Development at Lumileds, attended the LpS in Bregenz and made a presentation about the company’s QD technology. In this interview he gives some background information about the QD program and future steps. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Commentary | Trends | Feb 21, 2018

Can You Show Me the Next S-Curve, Please?

Can You Show Me the Next S-Curve, Please? The evolution of technologies is often described using the “S-curve” model. In the early stage, in the first phase of its life cycle, technology is mainly driven by fundamental research. Only a few players are active at that time and innovation steps are quite large. In the second phase, early adopters start to develop products and bring them to market. This phase is characterized by huge investments. In the third phase, more and more players enter the technology field, competition becomes important and development speed of the technology decreases. In the last phase, the technology is mature, (nearly) everybody can use it, there are fewer margins and the technology should be replaced by a new one. Many of the SSL technologies have meanwhile reached maturity. Where are the upcoming technologies, what will be the next S-curve? Looking at technology discussions and lectures at LpS 2017 I tried to find answers to these questions. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Technologies | LiFi | Jan 15, 2018

LiFi - What It Is, How It Works, What It Provides, How to Apply, and Its Future Prospects

LiFi - What It Is, How It Works, What It Provides, How to Apply, and Its Future Prospects The acronym LiFi (Light Fidelity) was born at the beginning of the 2010s. Its name derives from the very well-known WiFi (Wireless Fidelity). The term VLC (Visible Light Communication) is used in the restricted instances of visible light. Mr. Luc Chassage who works for Oledcomm and the Versailles University is also Scientific Committee President of the Global LiFi Congress that offers 20 lectures dealing with all aspects of LiFi. He is a profound expert in this technology field. Mr. Chassage explains the functionality, pitfalls and hurdles to overcome, the disadvantages and advantages, and best practice to apply LiFi. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Research | Thermal Management | Jan 15, 2018

Thermal Issues Posed by Compact Packaging and IoT for Next Generation SSL

Thermal Issues Posed by Compact Packaging and IoT for Next Generation SSL Besides general lighting, LEDs are penetrating many areas. At the same time, Internet of Things (IoT) has been rapidly evolving. Added electronics are expected to add an additional 70% to overall heat generation. Therefore, solving thermal problems will become more important again; on a par with footprint area and cost. Prof. Mehmet Arik, Director of EVATEG Center for Energy Efficient Electronics and Lighting Technologies at the Ozyegin University, and Umut Zeynep Uras, master student at the Ozyegin University, present some of the current, local, hotspot thermal issues caused by tight packaging. The severity of the problem for future lighting systems with added IoT will also be discussed. Finally, possible technologies to meet those challenges will be shown. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Research | Light Generation | Jan 01, 2018

Hybrid Quantum Dot Light Emitting Electrochemical Cells

Hybrid Quantum Dot Light Emitting Electrochemical Cells Several new light generation technologies that are overshadowed by LEDs and OLEDs are investigated. Most of these technologies are in a very early stage of research. One such technology, the LEC technology, was presented at LpS 2017. Light emitting electrochemical cells can be compared to OLEDs, but they are based on a much simpler inorganic architecture. The innovation in the presented approach lies in the combination with quantum dots, resulting in a hybrid solution. This novel attempt with all its consequences and future prospects was the reason that the LpS Scientific Award jury voted to bestow the award on Dr. Ekaterina Nannen, Group Leader of the Research Group „Solid State Lighting“ at the Nano-Energie-Technik- Zentrum (NETZ) of the University Duisburg-Essen and her research team, Julia Frohleiks and Svenja Wepfer. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Research News | CIE | Quality | Jan 01, 2018

Color Reproduction and Measurement of 3D Objects

Color Reproduction and Measurement of 3D Objects CIE Division 8 Image Technology is responsible for the study of the optical, visual and metrological aspects of the communication, processing, and reproduction of images, using all types of analogue and digital imaging devices, storage media, and imaging media. The Division is continually working on recommendations to improve color image reproduction techniques, including, for example, colorappearance models, color-difference evaluation and gamut-mapping algorithms. Current technology is able to transform color images from one digital medium to another, under various viewing conditions, while maintaining the appearance of each color in the image. This process has been applied in the graphic arts industry with great success. According to Kaida Xiao, Chair of CIE's Division 8 TC 8-17, the CIE standard observer and psychophysical data for color-appearance and color-difference modelling were developed using flat, 2D color samples. He explains that to meet the increasing requirements for color image reproduction for 3D objects, new research and recommendations are highly desired. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Automotive | Driver IC | Controls | Dec 28, 2017

Interior Automotive Lighting Control Redefined

Interior Automotive Lighting Control Redefined In modern car’s interior lighting, tough requirements and rising complexity are a huge challenge. A new industry consortium was formed to meet this technological challenge and to provide a comprehensive ecosystem for the new digital LED lighting paradigm. The founding members of the Open ISELED Alliance are Inova Semiconductors (ISELED "Digital LED" concept and LED controller), Dominant Opto Technologies (LED manufacturing and packaging), NXP (system microcontroller), TE Connectivity (system integration and connection technology) and Pforzheim University (theoretical framework). The alliance recently added LucieLabs (software, firmware), a French IoT Software startup to its line-up. The goal of all these organizations is to work in close cooperation to present a complete system solution - a true ecosystem. Roland Neumann, CTO of Inova Semiconductors introduces the challenges and the worked out innovative solution that uses a single system controller to individually address up to 4,096 LEDs. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Event-Reports | Technologies | Trends | Dec 13, 2017

LpS Gets a Younger Sibling to Foster a Holistic System Approach

LpS Gets a Younger Sibling to Foster a Holistic System Approach For the most part our readers are aware of the fact that the LpS has a strong focus on the component level, but after the 6th event, the Luger Research team realized that it was time to find a way to push the more holistic system approach. After much consideration and careful planning, the Trends in Lighting (TiL) Forum and Show was initiated and took place in conjunction with the LpS 2017. Arno Grabher-Meyer, Editor-in-Chief at LED professional took a close look at both exhibitions and the lectures to find out what the audience thought of the extension and broader outlook. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Quality | Measurement | Calibration | Dec 11, 2017

Avoiding Brightness and Color Mismatch with Proper RGB Gamut Calibration

Avoiding Brightness and Color Mismatch with Proper RGB Gamut Calibration For well over a decade, proponents of Solid-State Lighting (SSL) have been offering bullish forecasts concerning the adoption of LEDs for general and specialized lighting applications. Recent years have seen those rosy predictions come true, with LED lighting now almost completely dominating the market for new construction, retrofit, and many replacement lighting applications. For many of these applications accurate color calibration is required. Rood Bouten, CTO at Admesy, explains the reasons and how to perform a proper RGB gamut calibration. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Commentary | Test Equipment | Dec 11, 2017

The Value of High-End Labs for High Quality Lighting

The Value of High-End Labs for High Quality Lighting With the relocation to the Augsburg site in 2015, the Osram laboratory equipment includes a number of integrating spheres of different sizes up to 3 meters in diameter, several goniophotometers A/B/C types, a rotary mirror light distribution meter and a hemispherical goniometer with a measurement radius of 2.65 meters, optical bench measuring systems with up to 35 meter measuring distance, corresponding high-quality photometric receivers and spectral radiometers as well as the necessary components for the electrical operation of lamps - according to customer or standardized specifications. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Technologies | Electronics | Smart Lighting & IoT | Nov 30, 2017

SoC Technologies in Lighting - Today’s Landscape and Tomorrow's Practices

SoC Technologies in Lighting - Today’s Landscape and Tomorrow's Practices A system-on-chip (SoC) quite suddenly became an important component in the lighting industry, fueling IoT innovation and opening new opportunities, while at the same time bringing disruption and new challenges. With rapid advancements in wireless communication, the impact of connected technologies on the lighting business will only keep increasing. This means deeper integration with SoCs and more attention from silicon vendors as they start competing for market share in this promising segment. But what is the current state of SoC design from the lighting perspective? Are chipmakers keeping up with the growing expectations for wireless lighting control solutions that are mature and truly reliable? When developing its complete Bluetooth software stack for professional lighting, Silvair worked with a number of different SoCs. Therefore, Piotr Winiarczyk, Wireless Solution Architect, and Szymon Rzadkosz might have found the answers to these questions. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Technologies | Electronics | Drivers | Nov 09, 2017

LED Driver Miniaturization - Opening New Opportunities for Solid State Lighting

LED Driver Miniaturization - Opening New Opportunities for Solid State Lighting While LEDs have significantly improved over the past decade, driver technologies have not kept pace and are, in some respects, the limiting factors for new applications. Size is a particular issue. Dramatically increasing the switching frequency helps to reduce size but often causes other issues or is costly. Mickey Madsen, CEO of Nordic Power Converters, explains how his company has overcome the hurdles and made it feasible by designing very high frequency LED drivers. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Research | Electronics | Drivers | Nov 02, 2017

LED-Retrofit Based on AlGaN/GaN-on-Si Field- Effect Transistor Drivers

LED-Retrofit Based on AlGaN/GaN-on-Si Field- Effect Transistor Drivers Efficient driver technologies for LED systems are still a relevant topic. Several new approaches are proposed and new technologies are under development. Andreas Zibold, PhD student at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics IAF, and his co-authors, M. Kunzer, R. Reiner, B. Weiß, P. Waltereit, R. Quay, J. Wagner, and O. Ambacher demonstrate the suitability of AlGaN/GaNon- Si field effect transistors (FETs) for their use in LED drivers. The transistors are tested in an isolated buck converter and an efficiency of 86% is measured for the full converter circuit. The driver circuit is combined with an LED module based on a laser-structured Aluminum Nitride (AlN) ceramic board onto which 21 high power white-emitting LED chips are mounted. This combination resulted in an LEDRetrofit lamp with a total light output of 2676 lm at an efficacy level of 119 lm/W. The results compare favorably to state-of-the-art commercial solutions. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Interview | Trends | Horticulture | Sep 25, 2017

Trends in Horticulture Lighting

Trends in Horticulture Lighting Cree has been a leader in general lighting applications for over 20 years and has customers ranging from restaurant chains to global government agencies. Paul Scheidt began his career in Cree in 2005, working on the development of their lighting applications. During this time, he has seen an increase in the horticulture lighting application. LED professional spoke to Paul Scheidt about horticulture lighting and what he thinks is behind this recent trend. He also shares his views of what he thinks the future holds for both Cree and horticulture lighting applications. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Quality | Perception | Sep 25, 2017

Lighting to Achieve Optimal Appearance

Lighting to Achieve Optimal Appearance Visual appearance of an object or space depends on the characteristics of the lighting applied. The objective definition of light quality often doesn’t tell the whole story. Light intensity, its spectral composition and distribution in space, as well as individual preference, must be considered. Nevertheless, aiming for the absolute optimum is only recommended when private rooms are concerned. As visual appearance is key in driving consumer demand, it is important to tune the light to maximize effectiveness and visual pleasure for most consumers. Markus Reisinger, owner and CEO of the Lighting Research Studio, discusses this complex situation with examples. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Measurement | Special Applications | UV | Sep 25, 2017

Issue 63 | Challenges in UV Measurement

Issue 63 | Challenges in UV Measurement Over the past decade UV LEDs have emerged as a highly attractive alternative to conventional UV emission sources. They are cost effective and energy efficient devices in a small housing. These advantages allow new fields of applications and access to a larger group of users - even in the consumer market, e.g. water purification. Dr. Tobias Roesener, Product Manager at Instrument Systems, explains what makes accurate measurement of UV LEDs so complicated and what the crucial requirements on the measurement equipment are. In addition, he discusses calibration and stray light issues. Read more »

Resources | LpR Article | Technologies | Light Conversion | Quantum Dots | Sep 25, 2017

Quantum Dot Based White LEDs for General Illumination

Quantum Dot Based White LEDs for General Illumination Colloidal quantum dot based white LEDs can be integrated into commercial products meeting the stringent reliability requirements for general illumination and providing LED efficiency gains of 5% to 15% over commercial phosphor based LEDs at CCT’s ranging from 5000 K to 2700 K. Unlike earlier demonstrations, the QD material is applied in an on-chip configuration resulting in drop-in fit, form, and function compatibility to existing LED based luminaires and lamps. Ken T. Shimizu, Director, Novel Technologies and Devices, Research and Development, M. Böhmer, D. Estrada, S. Gangwal, S. Grabowski, H. Bechtel, E. Kang, K. J. Vampola, D. Chamberlin, O. B. Shchekin, and J. Bhardwaj from Lumileds showcase the advantages of on-chip QD LEDs: A commercial lamp at 3000K color temperature and 90 CRI is substituted with QD based LEDs resulting in a system level efficiency gain up to 17%, attributed to the reduced blue LED droop from the lower drive current and the lower heat sink temperature when compared to the standard phosphor based LED lamp output. Read more »

FEATURED

LUXTECH Introduces FLEX Color, Architectural Grade RGB Tape

LUXTECH Introduces FLEX Color, Architectural Grade RGB Tape LUXTECH, a leading American manufacturer of architectural grade LED modules, introduces FLEX Color to their line of flexible LED strips. The RGB strip light is populated by high quality LEDs with tight binning to maintain color consistency. Read more »

FEATURED

Job Opportunity

Job Opportunity Synergy 21 has been a successful, well-known brand in the lighting industry for around 9 years. We satisfy our customers with top-notch planning, development, production, and distribution of high-quality lighting fixtures. We also offer an attractive working environment to over 200 employees at 6 ... Read more »

FEATURED

XP-G2 High Efficacy LEDs Use Less Power, Drop-in Compatible

XP-G2 High Efficacy LEDs Use Less Power, Drop-in Compatible Cree, Inc. announces the new High Efficacy (HE) version of the XLamp® XP-G2 LED that delivers improved performance compared to standard XP-G2 LEDs, with higher output and greater efficiency to enable smaller, lighter, lower-cost designs. The original XLamp XP-G2 LED pioneered a broad set of LED ... Read more »

EDITORIAL

High Conductive Foils Enabling Large Area Lighting

High Conductive Foils Enabling Large Area Lighting Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP as one of the leading partners for research and development for surface technologies and organic electronics and Sefar AG, a leading manufacturer of precision fabrics from monofilaments, developed a roll-to-roll ... Read more »

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